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Eagle skull

Extinct birds

58 losses since human arrival

Critically endangered birds

Nine Red List, 26 nationally critical

Rediscovered birds

The remarkable return of five extinct species

Kakapo

Flightless
birds

Takahe  Kiwi
Kakapo  Penguin
Moa  Wren

Penguin

Yellow-eyed
Four crested
Little blue
White-flippered

Teal

Teal

Auckland Is.
Campbell Is.
Brown teal
Blue duck

Native ducks

Blue duck
Paradise shelduck
Grey duck

Parrots   Parakeets

Kea
Kea
Kaka
Kakapo
5 parakeets

Birds of prey & owls

Birds of prey
Falcon,  Harrier
Haast's eagle
Morepork
Laughing owl

Fruit-eating birds

Kereru (pigeon)  & 12 seed dispersers

Huia

Wattlebirds

Huia
Kokako
Saddleback
Bat

Mammals

Greater & Lesser
short-tailed bats,
Long-tailed bat

Gigantism in insects

Earthworms   
Weta

Living fossils

Leiopelma frogs
Land snails

Tuatara

Anseriformes


14

Anatidae
(Ducks, Geese & Swans)


14

Apterygiformes

5

Apterygidae (Kiwi)

5

Caprimulgiformes

1

Aegothelidae

1

Charadriiformes
(Coastal birds)


30

Charadriidae

10

Haematopodidae

3

Laridae

4

Recurvirostridae

2

Scolopacidae

4

Stercorariidae (Hakoakoa)

2

Sternidae

10

Ciconiiformes

5

Ardeidae

4

Threskiornithidae

1

Columbiformes

2

Columbidae

2

Coraciiformes

1

Alcedinidae

1

Cuculiformes

1

Cuculidae

1

Dinornithiformes

10

Dinornithidae (Moa)

2

Emeidae (Moa)

8

Falconiformes

5

Accipitridae

4

Falconidae

1

Galliformes

1

Phasianidae

1

Gruiformes

13

Rallidae (Rail)

13

Passeriformes

32

Acanthisittidae (Wren)

6

Acanthizidae

2

Artamidae

2

Callaeidae (Wattlebirds)

3

Corvidae

1

Dicruridae

1

Hirundinidae

1

Meliphagidae

7

Motacillidae

1

Notiomystidae

3

Pachycephalidae

3

Pardalotidae

2

Petroicidae

3

Sylviidae

2

Turnagridae

2

Zosteropidae

1

Pelecaniformes

14

Pelecanidae (Pelican)

1

Phalacrocoracidae
(Cormorant & Shag)

12

Sulidae (Gannet)

1

Phaethontiformes

4

Phaethontidae

1

Podicipediformes

4

Podicipedidae

4

Procellariiformes

58

Diomedeidae (Albatross)

11

Hydrobatidae (Storm petrel)


2

Pelecanoididae
(Diving petrel)


1

Procellariidae (Petrel,
Prion & Shearwater)


46

Psittaciformes

9

Psittacidae
(True parrots)


6

Strigopidae
(New Zealand parrots)


3

Sphenisciformes

6

Spheniscidae (Penguin)

6

Strigiformes

2

Strigidae (Owl)

2


Kiwi population shrinking
"Fewer than 15 North Island brown kiwi are thought to be surviving in western Bay of Plenty, sparking fresh fears for the survival ... will be extinct there within four years unless action is taken"
New Zealand Herald
20 December 2004

New Zealand's flight path to disaster
"Few people are aware that, as the authors claim, New Zealand has a better record of the birds that lived over the past 100,000 years than any other area of the world. Our avifauna is diverse, unique, special, intriguing - and, to a large extent, extinct"
New Zealand Herald
14 January 2003

UN alert on threat to birds
"The UN document, the bi-annual Environment Programme (UNEP) GEO-3 report, estimates a quarter of the world's mammal species and 12 per cent of birds - including 15 per cent of New Zealand species - face extinction over the
next 30 years ..."
New Zealand Herald
23 May 2002

Kiwi an Aussie who overstayed
"The kiwi, New Zealand's national bird and sports symbol, probably originated in Australia, says a New Zealand scientist. Molecular evolutionist Dr Alan Cooper led an Oxford University team that found the kiwi developed in Australia and migrated to NZ about 70 million years ago along the Norfolk Ridge, or Lord Howe Rise, that linked the two countries ..."
New Zealand Herald
8 February 2001





The avifauna is the most striking feature of New Zealand biodiversity, and most strongly represents the evolution of unique species in a long period of isolation without mammals.  Native birds have suffered the greatest losses from human occupation, particularly since the introduction of predatory mammals.  A total of 197 native terrestrial, coastal and oceanic bird species have been identified in New Zealand.  Forty-nine (47 percent) terrestrial birds have become extinct since human colonisation 700 years ago.

Anseriformes

Anatidae (Ducks, teal, geese & swans)

 Auckland Island merganser (New Zealand merganser)
            Mergus australis [endemic] Extinct

 Auckland Island teal  Anas aucklandica [endemic]
            Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable
            B(1/1)
IE RR St

 Australasian shoveler  Anas rhynchotis Least concern
      New Zealand shoveler (Kuruwhengi)
           Anas rhynchotis variegata [endemic] [E] Not threatened

 Black swan Cygnus atratus Least concern [E] Not threatened SO

 Blue duck (Whio) Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos
            [endemic] Endangered [B.3] Nationally vulnerable
            C(1/1) CD Sp

 Blue-billed duck  Oxyura australis Extinct

 Brown teal (Pateke) Anas chlorotis [endemic] Endangered
      Brown teal  Anas chlorotis 'North Island' [endemic]
            [D.2] At risk-recovering A CD RR
      South Island brown teal  Anas chlorotis 'South Island'
            [endemic] [B.1] Nationally critical A

 Campbell Island teal  Anas nesiotis  [endemic]
            Critically endangered [B.1] Nationally critical A IE Inc OL

 Chatham Island duck Pachyanas chathamica Extinct

 Finsch's duck  Chenonetta finschi  Extinct

 Grey duck (Pacific black duck) Anas superciliosa Least concern
      Grey duck (Parera)  Anas superciliosa superciliosa
            [B.1] Nationally critical C

 Grey teal (Tete)  Anas gracilis Least concern
            [E] Not threatened SO Inc

 New Zealand musk duck (De Lautour's duck)
            Biziura delautouri  Extinct

 New Zealand scaup (Papango)  Aythya novaeseelandiae
            [endemic] Least concern [E] Not threatened Inc

 New Zealand swan  Cygnus sumnerensis  Extinct

 North Island goose  Cnemiornis gracilis  Extinct

 Paradise shelduck (Putangitangi) Tadorna variegata
            [endemic] Least concern [E] Not threatened

 Scarlett's duck  Malacorhynchus scarletti  Extinct

 South Island goose  Cnemiornis calcitrans  Extinct

Apterygiformes (Kiwi)

Apterygidae

 Great spotted kiwi (Roroa)  Apteryx haastii  [endemic]
            Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable D De OL RF

 Little spotted kiwi (Kiwi-pukupuku)  Apteryx owenii [endemic]
            Vulnerable [D.2] At risk-recovering A CD Inc RR

 North Island brown kiwi  Apteryx mantelli  [endemic]
            Endangered [B.3] Nationally vulnerable D(1/1) CD PD RF

 Rowi (Okarito brown kiwi)  Apteryx rowi  [endemic]
            Endangered [B.1] Nationally critical A CD Inc OL

 Tokoeka Apteryx australis  [endemic]
      Haast tokoeka  Apteryx australis 'Haast'
            Vulnerable [B.1] Nationally critical A De RF
      Northern Fiordland tokoeka  Apteryx australis 'Northern
            Fiordland'  Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable
            D(1/1) CD RF

      Southern Fiordland tokoeka  Apteryx australis 'Southern
            Fiordland' Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable
            C(1/1) CD Inc OL RF

      Stewart Island tokoeka  Apteryx australis lawryi
            Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable D(1/1) RF

Caprimulgiformes

Aegothelidae

 New Zealand owlet-nightjar  Aegotheles novaezealandiae  Extinct

Charadriiformes (Waders, gulls & terns)

Charadriidae (Dotterels & plovers)

 Banded dotterel  Charadrius bicinctus Least concern
      Auckland Island banded dotterel Charadrius bicinctus exilis
            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon DP IE RR
      Banded dotterel Charadrius bicinctus bicinctus
            [B.3] Nationally vulnerable D(1/1) RR

 Huahou (Red knot)  Calidris canutus

 New Zealand dotterel (Tuturiwhatu)  Charadrius obscurus
            [endemic]  Endangered
      Northern New Zealand dotterel Charadrius obscurus aquilonius
            [endemic] [B.3] Nationally vulnerable B(1/1) CD
      Southern New Zealand dotterel Charadrius obscurus obscurus
            [endemic] [B.1] Nationally critical A CD OL St

 New Zealand shore plover (Tuturuata) Thinornis novaeseelandiae
            Endangered [B.1] Nationally critical A CD Inc RR Sp

 Masked lapwing (Spur-winged plover) Vanellus miles
            Least concern
      Spur-winged plover Vanellus miles novaehollandiae
            [E] Not threatened SO

 Wrybill (Ngutu-parore)  Anarhynchus frontalis [endemic]
            Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable C(1/1) RR

Haematopodidae (Oystercatchers)

 Chatham Island oystercatcher Haematopus chathamensis
            Endangered [B.1] Nationally critical A CD IE RR St

 New Zealand pied oystercatcher (South Island oystercatcher)
            Haematopus finschi Least concern
            [D.1] At risk-declining B(1/1)

 Variable oystercatcher (Torea) Haematopus unicolor
            Least concern [D.2] At risk-recovering A

Laridae (Gulls)

 Black-billed gull  Larus bulleri  [endemic]
            Vulnerable [B.2] Nationally endangered E DE

 Kelp gull  Larus dominicanus Least concern
      Southern black-backed gull  Larus dominicanus dominicanus
            [E] Not threatened SO

 Silver gull  Larus novaehollandiae Least concern
      Red-billed gull  Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus
           [endemic] [B.3] Nationally vulnerable E(1/1)

Recurvirostridae (Stilt)

 Black stilt (Kaki) Himantopus novaezelandiae  [endemic]
            Critically endangered [B.1] Nationally critical A CD RR

 Pied stilt (Black-winged stilt) Himantopus himantopus
            Least concern
      Pied stilt (Australasian pied stilt) Himantopus himantopus
            leucocephalus
[D.1] At risk-declining B(1/1) SO

Scolopacidae

 Chatham Island snipe Coenocorypha pusilla  [endemic]
            Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable B(1/1) IE RR St

 Giant Chatham Island snipe Coenocorypha chathamica Extinct

 New Zealand snipe (Hakawai) Coenocorypha aucklandica
            Near threatened
      Antipodes Island snipe C. aucklandica meinertzhagenae
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon IE RR St
      Auckland Island snipe Coenocorypha aucklandica aucklandica
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon IE RR St
      Snares Island snipe Coenocorypha aucklandica huegeli
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon IE RR St
      Stewart Island snipe Coenocorypha aucklandica iredalei
            [endemic] Extinct
      Little Barrier snipe Coenocorypha aucklandica barrierensis
            [endemic] Extinct
      Campbell Island snipe Coenocorypha aucklandica 'Campbell'
            [endemic] [B.1] Nationally critical A IE Inc OL

Stercorariidae (Hakoakoa) (Skuas)

 Arctic skua (Parasitic jaeger) Stercorarius parasiticus
            Least concern [G] Migrant SO

 Brown skua Catharacta lonnbergi Least concern
 Southern skua  Catharacta antarctica Least concern
      Brown skua (Southern or Antarctic skua) 
            Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi

            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon SO Sp

 Long-tailed skua (Long-tailed jaeger) Stercorarius longicaudus
            Least concern [G] Migrant SO

 Pomarine skua (Pomarine jaeger) Stercorarius pomarinus
            Least concern [G] Migrant SO

 South Polar skua  Catharacta maccormicki
            Least concern [G] Migrant SO

Sternidae

 Antarctic tern  Sterna vittata Least concern
      Antarctic tern Sterna vittata bethunei
           [D.2] At risk-recovering A RR SO

 Black-fronted tern (Tarapiroe) Chlidonias albostriatus
           Endangered [B.2] Nationally endangered C(1/1) DP

 Blue noddy Procelsterna cerulea Least concern
      Grey ternlet Procelsterna cerulea albivittata
           [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon RR SO

 Brown noddy Anous stolidas Least concern
      Common noddy (Brown noddy) Anous stolidas pileatus
           [F] Coloniser OL SO

 Caspian tern (Taranui) Sterna caspia Least concern
            [B.3] Nationally vulnerable B(1/1) SO

 Fairy tern Sterna nereis Vulnerable
      New Zealand fairy tern  Sternula nereis davisae
           [B.1] Nationally critical A CD RR

 Sooty tern Onychoprion fuscata Least concern
      New Zealand sooty tern Onychoprion fuscata kermadeci
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon DP RR SO

 White-capped noddy (Lesser noddy) Anous tenuirostris
            Least concern
      White-capped noddy Anous tenuirostris minutus
           [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon RR SO

 White-fronted tern  Sterna striata Least concern
      Southern white-fronted tern Sterna striata aucklandorna
           [B.3] Nationally vulnerable B(1/1) DP RR
      White-fronted tern Sterna striata striata
            [D.1] At risk-declining B(1/1) DP

 White tern (Common white tern) Gygis alba Least concern
      White tern Gygis alba royana  [B.1] Nationally critical A OL SO

Ciconiiformes

Ardeidae

 Australasian bittern  Botaurus poiciloptilus Endangered
      [B.2] Nationally endangered B(1/1) Sp TO

 Great egret (Kotuku) (Great white heron) (Great white egret)
            Ardea modesta (Egretta alba modesta)
            [B.1] Nationally critical A OL SO St

 New Zealand little bittern  Ixobrychus novaezelandiae  Extinct

 Reef heron  Egretta sacra sacra  [B.3] Nationally vulnerable
           B(1/1) SO St

 White-faced heron  Egretta novaehollandiae Least concern
      White-faced heron Ardea novaehollandiae novaehollandiae
            [E] Not threatened SO

Threskiornithidae

 Royal spoonbill  Platalea regia Least concern
            [G.4] At risk-naturally uncommon RR Inc SO Sp

Columbiformes

Columbidae

 Chatham Island pigeon (Parea) Hemiphaga chathamensis
            [endemic] [B.1] Nationally critical A CD IE OL

 New Zealand pigeon (Kereru) (Kukupa) (Wood pigeon)
            Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae  [endemic]
            Near threatened [E] Not threatened CD Inc

Coraciiformes

Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)

 Kingfisher (Sacred kingfisher) Todiramphus sanctus
            Least concern [E] Not threatened
      New Zealand kingfisher (Sacred kingfisher) (Kotare)
            Todiramphus sanctus vagans [endemic] [E] Not threatened

Cuculiformes

Cuculidae (Cuckoos)

 Long-tailed cuckoo (Koekoea)  Eudynamys taitensis
            Least concern [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon DP

 Shining cuckoo  Chrysococcyx lucidus Least concern
      Shining cuckoo (Pipiwharauroa)  Chrysococcyx lucidus lucidus
            [E] Not threatened DP

Dinornithiformes  (Moa)

Dinornithidae

 North Island giant moa (Large bush moa)
            Dinornis novaezealandiae  [endemic] Extinct

 South Island giant moa  Dinornis robustus  [endemic] Extinct

Emeidae

 Crested moa Pachyornis australis  [endemic] Extinct

 Eastern moa  Emeus crassus  [endemic] Extinct

 Heavy-footed moa Pachyornis elephantopus  [endemic] Extinct

 Little bush moa (Lesser moa) Anomalopteryx didiformis
            [endemic] Extinct

 Mantell's moa (Mappin's moa) Pachyornis geranoides
            [endemic] Extinct

 Stout-legged moa (Coastal moa) Euryapteryx curtus
            [endemic] Extinct

Megalapterygidae

 Upland moa Megalapteryx didinus  [endemic] Extinct

Falconiformes (Birds of Prey)

Accipitridae (Eagles & hawks)

 Australasian harrier (Kahu, or swamp harrier) Circus approximans
            Least concern [E] Not threatened SO

 Chatham Island sea-eagle Haliaeetus australis  Extinct

 Eyles' harrier  Circus eylesi  Extinct

 Forbes' harrier  Circus teauteensis  Extinct

 Harpagornis (Haast's eagle, New Zealand eagle or Giant eagle)
            Harpagornis moorei  Extinct

Falconidae (Falcon)

 New Zealand falcon (Karearea) Falco novaeseelandiae
            Near threatened
      Eastern falcon Falco novaeseelandiae 'eastern'
            [B.3] Nationally vulnerable B(1/1) DP St
      Southern falcon Falco novaeseelandiae 'southern'
            [B.2] Nationally endangered B(1/1) DP
      Bush falcon Falco novaeseelandiae 'bush'
            [B.3] Nationally vulnerable B(1/1) DP St

Galliformes (Game birds)

Phasianidae (Partridges, quails & pheasants)

 New Zealand quail (Koreke)  Coturnix novaezelandiae  Extinct

Gruiformes

Rallidae (Rails & coots)

 Auckland Island rail (Auckland rail, Auckland Islands rail)
            Lewinia muelleri (Dryolimnas muelleri) [endemic]
            Vulnerable [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon IE RR St

 Australian coot (Common coot) Fulica atra Least concern
            [F] Coloniser SO Inc

 Banded rail (Buff-banded rail) Gallirallus philippensis Least concern
      Banded rail (Moho-pereru)  Gallirallus philippensis assimilis
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon DP

 Chatham Island coot  Fulica chathamensis  [endemic]  Extinct

 Chatham rail  Gallirallus modestus  [endemic] Extinct

 Dieffenbach's rail  Gallirallus dieffenbachii  [endemic] Extinct

 Giant Chatham Island rail (Hawkins' rail) Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi
            [endemic] Extinct

 Hodgen's rail  Gallinula hodgeni  Extinct

 Marsh crake (Baillon's crake) Porzana pusilla Least concern
      Marsh crake (Koitareke)  Porzana pusilla affinis
            [endemic] [D.3] At risk-relict A DP SO

 New Zealand coot  Fulica prisca  [endemic]  Extinct

 North Island adzebill  Aptornis otidiformis  [endemic] Extinct

 South Island adzebill  Aptornis defosser  [endemic] Extinct

 Purple swamphen (Pukeko)  Porphyrio porphyrio Least concern
      Pukeko (Purple swamphen)  Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus
            [E] Not threatened SO Inc

 Snipe-rail  Capellirallus karamu  [endemic] Extinct

 Spotless crake  Porzana tabuensis Least concern
      Spotless crake (Puweto) Porzana tabuensis plumbea
            [D.3] At risk-relict A SO

 North Island takahe (Moho) Porphyrio mantelli
            [endemic] Extinct

 South Island takahe  Porphyrio hochstetteri  [endemic]
            Endangered [B.1] Nationally critical A CD RR

 Weka (Woodhen)  Gallirallus australis  [endemic] Vulnerable
      Western weka Gallirallus australis australis [endemic]
            [D.1] At risk-declining A(1/1) DP EF
      North Island weka  Gallirallus australis greyi  [endemic]
            [B.3] Nationally vulnerable B(1/1) CD EF RR Sp
      Buff weka Gallirallus australis hectori [endemic]
            [D.3] At risk-relict A
      Stewart Island weka  Gallirallus australis scotti  [endemic]
            [B.3] Nationally vulnerable B(1/1) DP

Passeriformes (Perching birds)

Acanthisittidae (New Zealand wrens)

 Bush wren (Matuhi)  Xenicus longipes [endemic]
      South Island bush wren  Xenicus longipes longipes  Extinct
      North Island bush wren  Xenicus longipes stokesi  Extinct
      Stead's bush wren (Stewart Island bush wren)
            Xenicus longipes variabilis  [endemic]  Extinct

 Grant-Mackie's wren  Pachyplichas jagmi  Extinct

 Rifleman (Titipounamu) Acanthisitta chloris [endemic]
            Least concern
      North Island rifleman  Acanthisitta chloris granti
            [D.1] At risk-declining
      South Island rifleman Acanthisitta chloris chloris
            [D.1] At risk-declining

 Rock wren  Xenicus gilviventris  [endemic]
            Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

 Stephens Island wren (Lyall's wren) Traversia lyalli
            [endemic] Extinct

 Stout-legged (Yaldwyn's) wren Pachyplichas yaldwyni Extinct

Acanthizidae

 Chatham Island warbler (Chatham gerygone)
            Gerygone albofrontata [endemic]
            Least concern [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

 Grey warbler (Riroriro)  Gerygone igata [endemic]
            Least concern [E] Not threatened

Artamidae

 Masked woodswallow  Artamus personatus
            Least concern [H.2] Vagrant B

 White-browed woodswallow  Artamus superciliosus
            Least concern [H.2] Vagrant B

Callaeidae (Wattlebirds)

 Huia Heteralocha acutirostris [endemic] Extinct

 North Island kokako Callaeas wilsoni [endemic]
            [A.CD Inc Sp] At risk-recovering

 South Island kokako Callaeas cinerea [endemic]
            Data deficient  Extinct

 North Island saddleback Philesturnus rufusater [endemic]
            [B.Inc RR] At risk-recovering

 South Island saddleback Philesturnus carunculatus [endemic]
            [A.Inc RR] At risk-recovering

Corvidae

 Chatham Islands raven (crow) Corvus moriorum [endemic] Extinct

 New Zealand raven (crow)  Corvus antipodum [endemic]
      North Island raven (crow) Corvus antipodum antipodum Extinct
      South Island raven (crow) Corvus antipodum pycrofti Extinct

Dicruridae

 Fantail (Piwakawaka) (Grey fantail) Rhipidura fuliginosa
            Least concern
      North Island fantail  Rhipidura fuliginosa placabilis [endemic]
            [E] Not threatened
      South Island fantail  Rhipidura fuliginosa fuliginosa [endemic]
            [E] Not threatened
      Chatham Island fantail  Rhipidura fuliginosa penitus [endemic]
            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

Hirundinidae

 Welcome swallow (Pacific swallow)  Hirundo tahitica neoxena
            Least concern [E] Not threatened

Meliphagidae

 Chatham Island bellbird  Anthornis melanocephala  Extinct

 New Zealand bellbird (Korimako) Anthornis melanura [endemic]
            Least concern
      Bellbird (Korimako) Anthornis melanura melanura [endemic]
            [E] Not threatened
      Poor Knights bellbird  Anthornis melanura oneho [endemic]
            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon
      Three Kings bellbird  Anthornis melanura obscura [endemic]
            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Red Wattlebird  Anthochaera carunculata
            Least concern [H.2] Vagrant B

 Tui (Parson bird)  Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae [endemic]
            Least concern
      Tui  Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae
            [endemic] [E] Not threatened
      Chatham Island tui  P. novaeseelandiae chathamensis
            [endemic] [B.2] Nationally endangered

Motacillidae

 New Zealand pipit (Pihoihoi) Anthus novaeseelandiae
            Least concern
      Antipodes Island pipit   Anthus novaeseelandiae
            steindachneri
[D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon
      Auckland Island pipit  Anthus novaeseelandiae aucklandicus
            [D.2] At risk-recovering
      Chathams pipit  Anthus novaeseelandiae chathamensis
            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon
      New Zealand pipit (Pihoihoi)  Anthus novaeseelandiae
            novaeseelandiae
[D.1] At risk-declining

Notiomystidae

 Stitchbird (Hihi)  Notiomystis cincta  [endemic]
            Vulnerable [B.2] Nationally endangered

Pachycephalidae

 Brown creeper (Pipipi)  Mohoua novaeselandiae  [endemic]
            Least concern [E] Not threatened

 Whitehead (Popokotea or Popokatea)  Mohoua albicilla
            [endemic] Least concern [E] Not threatened

 Yellowhead (Mohua)  Mohoua ochrocephala  [endemic]
            Endangered [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

Petroicidae

 Black robin (Chatham robin)  Petroica traversi  [endemic]
            Endangered [B.1] Nationally critical

 New Zealand robin (Toutouwai)  Petroica australis [endemic]
            Least concern
      South Island robin  Petroica australis australis [endemic]
            [E] Not threatened
      North Island robin  Petroica australis longipes [endemic]
            [E] Not threatened
      Stewart Island robin  Petroica australis rakiura
            [endemic] [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

 Tomtit Petroica macrocephala [endemic] Least concern
      Auckland Island tomtit  Petroica macrocephala marrineri
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon
      Chatham Island tomtit  Petroica macrocephala chathamensis
            [endemic] [B.2] Nationally endangered
      North Island tomtit (Pied tomtit) (Miromiro)
            Petroica macrocephala toitoi [endemic]
            [E] Not threatened
      Snares Island tomtit (Black tomtit)
            Petroica macrocephala dannefaerdi [endemic]
            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon
      South Island tomtit (Yellow-breasted tomtit) (Ngirungiru)
            Petroica macrocephala macrocephala [endemic]
            [E] Not threatened

Sylviidae

 New Zealand fernbird (Matata)  Bowdleria punctata
            [endemic] Least concern
      Codfish Island fernbird (Matata)  Bowdleria punctata wilsoni
            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon
      Snares Island fernbird (Karoti)  Bowdleria punctata caudata
            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon
      North Island fernbird (Matata)  Bowdleria punctata vealeae
            [D.1] At risk-declining
      South Island fernbird (Matata)  Bowdleria punctata punctata
            [D.1] At risk-declining
      Stewart Island fernbird  Bowdleria punctata stewartiana
            [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

 Chatham Island fernbird (Chatham fernbird) Bowdleria rufescens
            [endemic] Extinct

Turnagridae

 North Island piopio  Turnagra tanagra [endemic] Extinct

 South Island piopio (New Zealand thrush) Turnagra capensis
      South Island piopio Turnagra capensis capensis
            [endemic] Extinct
      Stephens Island piopio Turnagra capensis minor
            [endemic] Extinct

Zosteropidae

 Silvereye (Tauhou)  Zosterops lateralis Least concern
      Silvereye (Tauhou)  Zosterops lateralis lateralis
            [E] Not threatened

Pelecaniformes

Pelecanidae (Pelican)

 New Zealand pelican Pelecanus novaezealandiae Extinct

Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants & shags)

 Auckland Island shag  Leucocarbo colensoi [endemic]
            Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

 Bounty Island shag  Leucocarbo ranfurlyi  [endemic]
            Vulnerable [B.1] Nationally critical

 Campbell Island shag  Leucocarbo campbelli [endemic]
            Vulnerable [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Chatham Island shag  Leucocarbo onslowi  [endemic]
            Critically endangered [B.2] Nationally endangered

 Great cormorant (Kawau)  Phalacrocorax carbo Least concern
      Black shag  Phalacrocorax carbo novaehollandiae
            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Little black shag  Phalacrocorax sulcirostris  Least concern
            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Little pied cormorant (Little shag)  Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
            Least concern
      Little shag (Kawaupaka) P. melanoleucos brevirostris
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 New Zealand king shag  Leucocarbo carunculatus
            [endemic] Vulnerable [B.2] Nationally endangered

 Pied shag (Karuhiruhi)  Phalacrocorax varius Least concern
      Pied shag P. varius varius [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

 Pitt Island shag  Strictocarbo featherstoni [endemic]
            Endangered [B.2] Nationally endangered

 Spotted shag (Blue shag) Leucocarbo punctatus Least concern
      Spotted shag (Parekareka) Leucocarbo punctatus punctatus
            [E] Not threatened
      Blue shag  Leucocarbo punctatus steadi [E] Not threatened

 Stewart Island shag (Bronze shag)  Leucocarbo chalconotus
            [endemic] Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

Sulidae (Gannets & boobies)

 Takapu (Australasian gannet) Morus serrator Least concern
            [E] Not threatened

 Masked booby Sula dactylatra Least concern
      Masked booby (Blue-faced booby) Sula dactylatra fullageri
            [B.2] Nationally endangered

Phaethontiformes

Phaethontidae

 Red-tailed tropic bird (Amokura)  Phaethon rubricauda
            Least concern [B.2] Nationally endangered

Podicipediformes

Podicipedidae (Grebes)

 Australasian little grebe (Australasian grebe) 
            Tachybaptus novaehollandiae
Least concern [F] Coloniser

 Great crested grebe  Podiceps cristatus Least concern
      Southern crested grebe (Puteketeke) (Australasian
            crested grebe) Podiceps cristatus australis
            [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

 Hoary-headed grebe  Poliocephalus poliocephalus
            Least concern [H.2] Vagrant A

 New Zealand dabchick (Weweia) (New Zealand grebe)
            Poliocephalus rufopectus [endemic]
            Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

Procellariiformes
(Tube-nosed birds)

Diomedeidae (Albatrosses & mollymawks)

 Antipodean albatross Diomedea antipodensis [endemic]
            Vulnerable
      Antipodean albatross Diomedea antipodensis antipodensis
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Black-browed albatross Thalassarche melanophrys
            Endangered [F] Coloniser

 Black-footed albatross Phoebastria nigripes
            Endangered [H.2] Vagrant B

 Buller's mollymawk (Buller's albatross) Thalassarche bulleri
            [endemic] Near threatened
      Southern Buller's mollymawk Thalassarche bulleri bulleri
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon
      Northern Buller's mollymawk Thalassarche bulleri platei
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Chatham Island mollymawk (Chatham albatross)
            Thalassarche eremita [endemic]
            Critically endangered [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Gibson's albatross (Gibson's wandering albatross)
            Diomedea gibsoni [endemic] [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

 Grey-headed mollymawk Thalassarche chrysostoma
            Vulnerable [B.1] Nationally critical

 Indian yellow-nosed albatross (Eastern yellow-nosed mollymawk)
            Thalassarche carteri Endangered [F] Coloniser

 Laysan albatross Phoebastria immutabilis
            Vulnerable [H.2] Vagrant B

 Light-mantled sooty albatross (Light-mantled albatross)
            Phoebetria palpebrata Near threatened
            [D.1] At risk-declining

 Northern royal albatross (Toroa) Diomedea sanfordi
            [endemic] Endangered
      Northern royal albatross Diomedea sanfordi sanfordi
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 New Zealand black-browed albatross (Campbell albatross)
            (Campbell Island mollymawk) Thalassarche impavida
            [endemic] Vulnerable [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Shy albatross Thalassarche cauta Near threatened
      New Zealand white-capped mollymawk Thalassarche cauta
            steadi
[endemic] [D.1] At risk-declining
      Tasmanian mollymawk Thalassarche cauta cauta
            [H.2] Vagrant B

 Southern royal albatross (Toroa) Diomedea epomophora
            [endemic] Vulnerable
      Southern royal albatross Diomedea epomophora epomophora
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Salvin's mollymawk (Salvin's albatross) Thalassarche salvini
                  Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

 Sooty albatross Phoebetria fusca Endangered [H.2] Vagrant B

 Wandering albatross (Snowy albatross) Diomedea exulans
            Vulnerable [G] Migrant

Hydrobatidae (Storm petrels)

 Black-bellied storm petrel  Fregetta tropica Least concern
            [E] Not threatened

 Grey-backed storm petrel  Garrodia nereis Least concern
            [D.3] At risk-relict

 New Zealand storm petrel  Oceanites maorianis
            Critically endangered [C] Data deficient

 White-bellied storm petrel  Fregetta grallaria Least concern
      White-bellied storm petrel  Fregetta grallaria grallaria
            [B.2] Nationally endangered

 White-faced storm petrel  Pelagodroma marina Least concern
      New Zealand white-faced storm petrel  Pelagodroma marina
            maoriana
[D.3] At risk-relict
      Kermadec white-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina
            albiclunis
[B.1] Nationally critical

Pelecanoididae (Diving petrel)

 Common diving petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix  Least concern
      Northern diving petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix urinatrix
            [D.3] At risk-relict
      Southern diving petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix chathamensis
            [D.3] At risk-relict
      Subantarctic diving petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix exsul
            [E] Not threatened

 South Georgia diving petrel Pelecanoides georgicus  Least concern
      Codfish Island South Georgian diving petrel Pelecanoides
            georgicus
'Codfish Island'  [B.1] Nationally critical

Procellariidae (Petrels, prions & shearwaters)

 Antarctic giant petrel (Southern giant petrel)
      Macronectes giganteus  Near threatened [G] Migrant

 Antarctic petrel  Thalassoica antarctica Least concern

 Antarctic prion  Pachyptila desolata Least concern
            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Black petrel (Parkinson's petrel) Procellaria parkinsoni
      [endemic]  Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

 Black-winged petrel  Pterodroma nigripennis Least concern
            [E] Not threatened

 Blue petrel Halobaena caerulea Least concern [G] Migrant

 Broad-billed prion  Pachyptila vittata Least concern
            [D.3] At risk-relict

 Buller's shearwater  Puffinus bulleri
            [endemic] Vulnerable [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Cape petrel (Cape pigeon)  Daption capense Least concern
      Snares Cape petrel Daption capense australe
            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Chatham Island taiko (Magenta petrel) Pterodroma magentae
            [endemic] Critically endangered [B.1] Nationally critical

 Chatham petrel  Pterodroma axillaris  [endemic]
            Endangered [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

 Christmas shearwater Puffinus nativitatis Least concern

 Cook's petrel (Titi)  Pterodroma cookii [endemic]
            Endangered [D.3] At risk-relict

 Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea Least concern

 Fairy prion  Pachyptila turtur Least concern [D.3] At risk-relict

 Flesh-footed shearwater Puffinus carneipes Least concern
            [D.2] At risk-declining

 Fluttering shearwater  Puffinus gavia Least concern
            [D.3] At risk-relict

 Fulmar prion  Pachyptila crassirostris Least concern
      Fulmar prion  Pachyptila crassirostris crassirostris
            [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon
      Lesser fulmar prion  Pachyptila crassirostris eatoni
      Lesser fulmar prion (Subantarctic fulmar prion)  Pachyptila
            crassirostris flemingi
[D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon
      Chatham Island fulmar prion Pachyptila crassirostris
            pyramidalis
[D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Gould's petrel  Pterodroma leucoptera  Vulnerable

 Grey petrel Procellaria cinerea Near threatened
            [D.1] At risk-declining

 Grey-faced petrel (Great-winged petrel) Pterodroma macroptera
            Least concern
      Grey-faced petrel Pterodroma macroptera gouldi
            [E] Not threatened

 Hutton's shearwater  Puffinus huttoni  [endemic]
            Endangered [D.1] At risk-declining

 Juan Fernandez petrel Pterodroma externa Vulnerable

 Kerguelen petrel Lugensa brevirostris Least concern

 Kermadec petrel  Pterodroma neglecta Least concern
            [D.3] At risk-relict

 Little shearwater  Puffinus assimilis Least concern
      Subantarctic little shearwater  Puffinus assimilis elegans
           [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon
      North Island little shearwater Puffinus assimilis haurakiensis
            [D.2] At risk-recovering
      Kermadec little shearwater Puffinus assimilis kermadecensis
            [D.3] At risk-relict

 Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus Least concern

 Medium-billed prion (Salvin's prion) Pachyptila salvini
            Least concern

 Mottled petrel  Pterodroma inexpectata
            Near threatened [D.3] At risk-relict

 Northern giant petrel (Hall's giant petrel)  Macronectes halli
            Near threatened [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Phoenix petrel Pterodroma alba Endangered

 Pink-footed shearwater Puffinus creatopus Vulnerable

 Providence petrel Pterodroma solandri Vulnerable

 Pycroft's petrel Pterodroma pycrofti [endemic] Vulnerable
            [D.1] At risk-recovering

 Short-tailed shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris Least concern

 Slender-billed prion (Thin-billed prion) Pachyptila belcheri
            Least concern

 Soft-plumaged petrel Pterodroma mollis Least concern

 Sooty shearwater (Muttonbird) (Titi) Puffinus griseus
            Near threatened [D.1] At risk-declining

 Southern fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides Least concern

 Stejneger's petrel Pterodroma longirostris Vulnerable

 Tahiti petrel  Pterodroma rostrata Near threatened

 Wedge-tailed shearwater Puffinus pacificus Least concern
            [D.3] At risk-relict

 Westland petrel  Procellaria westlandica [endemic]
            Vulnerable [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 White-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis
            Vulnerable [D.1] At risk-declining

 White-headed petrel  Pterodroma lessonii Least concern
            [E] Not threatened

 White-naped petrel (White-necked petrel) Pterodroma cervicalis
            Vulnerable [D.3] At risk-relict

Psittaciformes

Psittacidae  (True parrots)

 Antipodes Island parakeet (Green parakeet)
              Cyanoramphus unicolor [endemic]
              Vulnerable [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Forbes' parakeet (Chatham parakeet) Cyanoramphus forbesi
            [endemic] Endangered [B.2] Nationally endangered

 New Zealand red-crowned parakeet (Red-fronted parakeet)
            Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae [endemic] Vulnerable
      New Zealand red-crowned parakeet (Kakariki) 
            Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae novaezelandiae
            [endemic] [D.3] At risk-relict
      Chatham Island red-crowned parakeet
            Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae chathamensis
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon
      Kermadec red-crowned parakeet (Kermadec parakeet)
            Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cyanurus
            [endemic] [D.2] At risk-recovering

 Orange-fronted parakeet (Malherbe's parakeet)
            Cyanoramphus malherbi [endemic]
            Critically endangered [B.1] Nationally critical

 Reischek's parakeet Cyanoramphus hochstetteri
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Yellow-crowned parakeet  Cyanoramphus auriceps [endemic]
            Near threatened [E] Not threatened

Strigopidae (New Zealand parrots)

 Kaka (Bush parrot) Nestor meridionalis [endemic] Endangered
      North Island kaka Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis
            [B.3] Nationally vulnerable
      South Island kaka Nestor meridionalis meridionalis
            [B.2] Nationally endangered

 Kakapo (Owl parrot) Strigops habroptilus [endemic]
            Critically endangered [B.1] Nationally critical

 Kea (Mountain parrot) Nestor notabilis [endemic]
            Vulnerable [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

Sphenisciformes (Penguins)

Spheniscidae (Penguins)

 Blue penguin (Little penguin)  Eudyptula minor Least concern
      Chatham blue penguin (Chatham Island blue penguin)
            Eudyptula minor chathamensis [endemic]
            [endemic] [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon
      Cook Strait blue penguin  Eudyptula minor variabilis
            [endemic] [5] Gradual decline
      Northern blue penguin  Eudyptula minor iredalei
            [endemic] [D.1] At risk-declining
      Southern blue penguin  Eudyptula minor minor
            [endemic] [D.1] At risk-declining
      White-flippered penguin  Eudyptula minor albosignata
            [endemic] [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

 Erect-crested penguin  Eudyptes sclateri [endemic]
            Endangered [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Fiordland crested penguin (Tawaki)  Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
            [endemic] Vulnerable [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

 Southern rockhopper penguin Eudyptes chrysocome Vulnerable
      Eastern rockhopper penguin  Eudyptes chrysocome filholi
           [B.1] Nationally critical

 Snares crested penguin  Eudyptes robustus [endemic]
            Vulnerable [D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

 Yellow-eyed penguin (Hoiho)  Megadyptes antipodes [endemic]
            Endangered [B.3] Nationally vulnerable

Strigiformes (owls)

Strigidae (Owls)

 Laughing owl (Whekau) Sceloglaux albifacies [endemic] Extinct
      South Island laughing owl Sceloglaux albifacies albifacies
            [endemic] Extinct
      North Island laughing owl Sceloglaux albifacies rufifacies
            [endemic] Extinct

 Southern boobook (Morepork) Ninox novaeseelandiae
            Least concern
      Morepork (Ruru) Ninox novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae
            [endemic] [E] Not threatened



Search by other native bird lists

Alphabetical botanical name list

Alphabetical common name list

Extinct native birds

2000 IUCN Red List


New Zealand 2008 Threat Classification System

[B.1] Nationally critical

24

[B.2] Nationally endangered

15

[B.3] Nationally vulnerable

38

Total threatened

77

[C] Data deficient

1

[D.1] At risk-declining

18

[D.2] At risk-recovering

10

[D.3] At risk-relict

17

[D.4] At risk-naturally uncommon

48

Total at risk

93

[E] Not threatened

36

Total native birds listed

207

'Criteria' for New Zealand threat rankings, as shown in bold type after each species category listing, and 'qualifiers' shown in normal type, are described below.

Criteria for New Zealand threat rankings

Nationally critical

A  Less than 250 mature individuals (natural or unnatural), or less than 2 sub-populations and less than 200 mature individuals in the largest sub-population, or the total area of occupancy is less than 1 ha;
C  Any population size, more than 70% population decline over 10 years or three generations whichever is longer.

Nationally endangered

A(1/1)  250-1000 mature individuals (natural or unnatural), 10-50% population decline;
B(1/1)  250-1000 mature individuals (unnatural), stable;
C(1/1)  1000-5000 mature individuals, 50-70% population decline.

Nationally vulnerable

A(1/1)  250-1000 mature individuals (unnatural), population increase greater than 10%;
B(1/1)  1000-5000 mature individuals (unnatural), stable;
C(1/1)  1000-5000 mature individuals, 10-50% population decline;
D(1/1)  5000-20,000 mature individuals, 30-70% population decline;
E(1/1)  20,000-100,000 mature individuals, 50-70% population decline.

At risk - declining

A(1/1)  5000-20,000 mature individuals, 10-30% population decline;
B(1/1)  20,000-100,000 mature individuals, 10-50% population decline;
C(1/1)  More than 100,000 mature individuals, 10-70% population decline.

At risk - recovering

A 1000-5000 mature individuals, population increase less than 10%;
B 5000-20,000 mature individuals, population increase less than 10%.

At risk - relict

A 5000-20,000 mature individuals, stable;
B 20,000 mature individuals, stable or increasing.
All Relict taxa occupy less than 10% of their original range.

Naturally uncommon

Taxa naturally confined to specific substrates, geographical areas or habitats, or taxa that occur within naturally small and widely scattered populations. It is not the result of past or recent human disturbance, and populations may be stable or increasing.

Not threatened

Taxa naturally confined to specific substrates, geographical areas or habitats, or taxa that occur within naturally small and widely scattered populations. It is not the result of past or recent human disturbance, and populations may be stable or increasing.

Introduced and naturalised

Taxa naturally confined to specific substrates, geographical areas or habitats, or taxa that occur within naturally small and widely scattered populations. It is not the result of past or recent human disturbance, and populations may be stable or increasing.

Migrant

Taxa naturally confined to specific substrates, geographical areas or habitats, or taxa that occur within naturally small and widely scattered populations. It is not the result of past or recent human disturbance, and populations may be stable or increasing.

Vagrant

Taxa naturally confined to specific substrates, geographical areas or habitats, or taxa that occur within naturally small and widely scattered populations. It is not the result of past or recent human disturbance, and populations may be stable or increasing.

Coloniser

Taxa naturally confined to specific substrates, geographical areas or habitats, or taxa that occur within naturally small and widely scattered populations. It is not the result of past or recent human disturbance, and populations may be stable or increasing.

Qualifiers for New Zealand threat classifications

CD  Conservation dependent

The taxon is likely to be moved to a higher threat category if current management is stopped.

DP  Data poor

Confidence in the listing is low due to poor assessment data being available.

De  Designated

A taxon that does not fit within criteria, and which has been designated to the most appropriate listing without the full application of criteria.

EW  Extinct in the wild

The taxon is only known in captivity or cultivation.

EF  Extreme fluctuations

The taxon has extreme unnatural population fluctuations, or natural fluctuations overlaying human-induced declines, that increase the threat of extinction. The lowest number of mature individuals should be used for determining population size.

Inc  Increasing

Increasing

IE  Island endemic

Island endemic

OL  One location

PD  Partial decline

Partial decline

RR  Range restricted

Range restricted

RF  Recruitment failure

The current population may appear stable, but the age structure is such that future catastrophic declines are likely.

SO  Secure overseas

Secure in those parts of it's natural range outside New Zealand.

Sp  Sparse

Taxa occur within small and widely scatterd populations.

St  Stable

Total population is stable, within a 10% factor, over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer period.

TO  Threatened overseas

Threatened in its' natural range outside New Zealand.

Summary of Species

Total bird species

240

Total birds (including ssp)

273

Total extinctions

58

Living birds

215

Oceanic species

78

Oceanic birds

82

Oceanic extinctions

1

Coastal birds

54

Terrestrial species

114

Terrestrial birds

137

Terrestrial extinctions

57

Percent extinct land birds

42%

Living terrestrial birds

80

2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

Critically endangered

8

Endangered

20

Vulnerable

44

Near threatened

9

Total listed

80


Additional birds extinct before human settlement

Manu antiquus
Albatross (unnamed)
Aptenodytes ridgeni
Ridgen's penguin
Archaeospheniscus lopdelli
Lopdell's penguin
Archaeospheniscus lowei
Lowe's penguin
Duntroonornis parvus
Duntroon penguin
Korora oliveri
Oliver's penguin
Marplesornis novaezealandiae
Harris' penguin
Pachydyptes ponderosus
New Zealand giant penguin
Palaeeudyptes antarcticus
Narrow flippered penguin
Palaeeudyptes marplesi
Marples' penguin
Platydyptes amiesi
Amies' penguin
Platydyptes novaezealandiae
Wide-flippered penguin
Pygoscelis tyreei
Tyree's penguin
Tereingaornis moisleyi
Moisley's penguin
Pelagornis miocaenus
Miocene false-toothed pelican
Pseudodontornis stirtoni
Stirton's false-toothed pelican

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